Open Access Research

Adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of a D-galactose-binding lectin from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL) in the mouse model of vaccination against neosporosis

Mariana R D Cardoso1, Caroline M Mota1, Dâmaso P Ribeiro1, Pablo G Noleto1, William B F Andrade1, Maria A Souza2, Neide M Silva3, Tiago W P Mineo1, José R Mineo1 and Deise A O Silva1*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av Pará 1720, Campus Umuarama, 38400-902, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

2 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

3 Laboratory of Immunopathology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

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Veterinary Research 2012, 43:76  doi:10.1186/1297-9716-43-76

Published: 29 October 2012

Abstract

Vaccination is an important control measure for neosporosis that is caused by a coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, leading to abortion and reproductive disorders in cattle and serious economic impacts worldwide. A D-galactose-binding lectin from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL) was recently described by our group with potential immunostimulatory and adjuvant effects in the leishmaniasis model. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of ScLL in immunization of mice against neosporosis. First, we investigated in vitro cytokine production by dendritic cells stimulated with Neospora lysate antigen (NLA), ScLL or both. Each treatment induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 production in a dose-dependent manner, with synergistic effect of NLA plus ScLL. Next, four groups of C57BL/6 mice were immunized with NLA + ScLL, NLA, ScLL or PBS. The kinetics of antibody response showed a predominance of IgG and IgG1 for NLA + ScLL group, whereas IgG2a response was similar between NLA + ScLL and NLA groups. Ex vivo cytokine production by mouse spleen cells showed the highest IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in the presence of NLA stimulation for mice immunized with NLA + ScLL and the lowest for those immunized with ScLL alone. After parasite challenge, mice immunized with NLA + ScLL or ScLL alone presented higher survival rates (70-80%) and lower brain parasite burden as compared to PBS group, but with no significant changes in morbidity and inflammation scores. In conclusion, ScLL combined with NLA was able to change the cytokine profile induced by the antigen or lectin alone for a Th1-biased immune response, resulting in high protection of mice challenged with the parasite, but with low degree of inflammation. Both features may be important to prevent congenital neosporosis, since protection and low inflammatory response are necessary events to guide towards a successful pregnancy.

Keywords:
Neospora caninum; Vaccination; Adjuvant; Plant lectin