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Open Access Research

Efficiency of spatio-temporal vaccination regimes in wildlife populations under different viral constraints

Martin Lange1*, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt2 and Hans-Hermann Thulke1

Author Affiliations

1 Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Dept. of Ecological Modelling, Leipzig, Germany

2 Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, Berlin D-10315, Germany

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Veterinary Research 2012, 43:37  doi:10.1186/1297-9716-43-37

Published: 24 April 2012

Abstract

Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is considered an endemic disease in European wild boar populations. In view of the high economic impact of the introduction of the virus into domestic pig units, huge efforts are invested in the preventive control of CSF in wild boar populations. Recent European Community guidelines favour oral mass vaccination against CSF in wild boar populations. The guidelines are explicit on the temporal structure of the vaccination protocol, but little is known about the efficacy of different spatial application schemes, or how they relate to outbreak dynamics.

We use a spatially explicit, individual-based wild boar model that represents the ecology of the hosts and the epidemiology of CSF, both on a regional scale and on the level of individual course of infection. We simulate adaptive spatial vaccination schemes accounting for the acute spread of an outbreak while using the temporal vaccination protocol proposed in the Community guidelines.

Vaccination was found to be beneficial in a wide range of scenarios. We show that the short-term proactive component of a vaccination strategy is not only as decisive as short-term continuity, but also that it can outcompete alternative practices while being practically feasible. Furthermore, we show that under certain virus-host conditions vaccination might actually contribute to disease persistence in local populations.