The replication cycle of caliciviruses. After attachment to the cellular receptor, the virion is internalised into the cell (step 1). Uncoating of the viral genome (step 2) is followed by translation of the polyprotein precursor (step 3) and co-translational processing releasing the non-structural proteins (step 4). These proteins assemble in a replication complex (step 5) that synthesises the antigenomic RNA (step 6), being itself used as a template for synthesis of the genomic RNA (step 7). The newly synthesized genomic RNA is translated as a polyprotein precursor (step 3) or is used for packaging in the assembled viral protein core (step 10). The antigenomic RNA is also the template for synthesis of subgenomic RNA (step 8). The subgenomic RNA is translated as structural proteins, VP60 and VP10 (step 9) and in lagoviruses, VP60 is also released from the polyprotein precursor after processing by the viral protease. At a still not defined time in the virus life cycle, assembly of the structural proteins as well as packaging of the genomic RNA occurs (step 10), followed by release of the mature virion from the cell (step 11). Reprinted from Antiviral Research, 87, Rohayem J, Bergmann M, Gebhardt J, Gould E, Tucker P, Mattevi A, Unge T, Hilgenfeld R, Neyts J, Antiviral strategies to control calicivirus infections, 167, 2010, with permission from Elsevier.
Abrantes et al. Veterinary Research 2012 43:12 doi:10.1186/1297-9716-43-12