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Open Access Research

Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle affects mucus biosynthesis in the abomasum

Manuela Rinaldi1, Leentje Dreesen1, Prisca R Hoorens1, Robert W Li2, Edwin Claerebout1, Bruno Goddeeris13, Jozef Vercruysse1, Wim Van Den Broek4 and Peter Geldhof1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium

2 Bovine Functional Genomics Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA

3 Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, 3001 Leuven, Belgium

4 Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium

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Veterinary Research 2011, 42:61  doi:10.1186/1297-9716-42-61

Published: 11 May 2011

Abstract

The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered to be the first line of defense to the external environment. Alteration in mucus components has been reported to occur during intestinal nematode infection in ruminants, but the role of mucus in response to abomasal parasites remains largely unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effects of an Ostertagia ostertagi infection on the abomasal mucus biosynthesis in cattle. Increased gene expression of MUC1, MUC6 and MUC20 was observed, while MUC5AC did not change during infection. Qualitative changes of mucins, related to sugar composition, were also observed. AB-PAS and HID-AB stainings highlighted a decrease in neutral and an increase in acidic mucins, throughout the infection. Several genes involved in mucin core structure synthesis, branching and oligomerization, such as GCNT3, GCNT4, A4GNT and protein disulphide isomerases were found to be upregulated. Increase in mucin fucosylation was observed using the lectin UEA-I and through the evaluation of fucosyltransferases gene expression levels. Finally, transcription levels of 2 trefoil factors, TFF1 and TFF3, which are co-expressed with mucins in the GI tract, were also found to be significantly upregulated in infected animals. Although the alterations in mucus biosynthesis started early during infection, the biggest effects were found when adult worms were present on the surface of the abomasal mucosa and are likely caused by the alterations in mucosal cell populations, characterized by hyperplasia of mucus secreting cells.